Pope Pius XII
Motto: Opus Justitiae Pax
(The work of justice and peace)
Eugenio Pacelli was born to an Italian family and served the church in many roles including Apostolic Nuncio to Bavaria. His diplomatic style was to be cautious and impartial drafting concordant (a Papal agreement aimed at preserving the Church’s privileges and freedom of action within a country) instead of confrontation. In 1939, he was elected pope and took the name, Pius XII. His papacy, covering the time of WWII and the communist cold war, was tumultuous and controversial. He sought to avoid brutal reprisals, yet saved thousands of Jews. (more than any government) In 1950, he solemnly declared that Mary was assumed into heaven, body, and soul. This is a belief held by the Church from the beginning.